Note 13. Superannuation Expenses

Superannuation Contributions to the Territory Banking Accounta 39,024 35,961
Productivity Benefitb 5,011 5,286
Superannuation Payment to Comsuper (for the PSSAP) 3,525 3,433
Superannuation to External Providersc 24,716 21,387
Total Superannuation Expenses 72,276 66,067


a) The increase is due to an increase in the rate for the Public Sector Superannuation Scheme (PSS) from 17.8% in 2012 to 19.7% in 2013. This was partially offset by a reduction in the rate for the Commonwealth Superannuation Scheme (CSS) from 19.7% in 2012 to 18.5% in 2013.

b) The decrease is due to declining number of members in the CSS and PSS.

c) The increase is due to pay rises and that most new starters are members of superannuation schemes managed by external providers.