Cancer in the ACT 1998-2004
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Cancer in the ACT
Cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the ACT. It is recognised as a major contributor to the burden of disease in Australia and has been identified as a National Health Priority Area for action.
This report Cancer in the ACT 1998-2004 is the fifth report of the ACT Cancer Registry, and provides an epidemiological review of cancer cases recorded in the ACT Cancer Registry up to the end of 2004 for two five-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2000-2004. In addition, the report provides an overview of cancer incidence and mortality for the period 1985 to 2004. Cancer survival is not reported here, but will be the subject for a future publication.
There were 5516 new cases of cancer diagnosed in residents of the ACT in 1998-2002 and 5802 new cases of cancer in 2000-2004. The overall age standardised incidence rate (ASR) was 329.5 per 100,000 population for males and 266.4 per 100,000 population for females during 1998-2002; and 325.2 per 100,000 population for males and 263.9 per 100,000 population for females during 2000-2004.
The most common cancer reported in males for both 1998-2002 and 2000-2004 was cancer of the prostate followed by cancer of the large bowel, melanoma of skin, and cancer of the lung. The most common cancer reported in females for both 1998-2002 and 2000-2004 was cancer of the breast followed by cancer of the large bowel, melanoma of the skin, and cancer of the lung.
The risk of developing cancer before the age of 75 years was 1 in 3 for males and 1 in 4 for females for both reporting periods. The risk estimate does not include the risk of developing non-melanocytic skin cancer.
Cancer was the most common cause of death in the ACT in 1998 (30 percent of all deaths) and 2004 (31 percent of all deaths). 1972 ACT residents died of cancer during 1998-2002 and 2012 ACT residents died from cancer over the period 2000-2004.
The most common causes of cancer death for males in the ACT for 1998-2002 and 2000-2004 were cancers of the lung, prostate and large bowel. In females, cancers of the breast, lung and large bowel were the most common causes of cancer deaths.
The risk of dying from cancer before the age of 75 years was 1 in 8 for males and 1 in 11 for females for both reporting periods.
ACT trends in incidence and mortality 1985- 2004
Although the number of new cancer cases and cancer deaths occurring each year has risen since 1985, age standardised mortality rates per 100,000 population have remained relatively stable. This finding indicates that there were changes in the age-structure of the population of the ACT over this time period rather than changes in the risk of cancer for any particular age group.
The incidence and mortality rates reported for specific cancers were standardised to the age distribution of the world standard population in 1960 to allow for international comparisons. Note that cancer became a notifiable disease in Australia in 1995 and this may influence reported rates.
Over the period 1985 to 2004 there was an increase in the age standardised incidence rates of the following cancers:
- Prostate cancer
- Breast cancer
- Cancer of uterus
- Colorectal cancer in males
- Colon cancer in males (slightly)
- Rectal cancer in males
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in both genders
In the same period, the following cancers saw a decrease in the age standardised incidence rate:
- Lung cancer in both genders
- Melanoma of skin in both genders
- Ovarian cancer
- Colorectal cancer in females
- Colon cancer in females (slightly)
- Rectal cancer in females
Most of the age standardised mortality rates for common cancers fell during the period 1985 to 2004 whilst a few cancers reported an increase in the age standardised mortality rate. Those with an increase were:
- Prostate cancer
- Breast cancer
- Cancer of uterus
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Melanoma of skin in males
The downward trend of the incidence rate for lung cancer in males could be explained by the national trend of decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking (daily smoking) over time by males, from 26.7 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 2004). Prevalence in female smoking also decreased over time, but not to the extent seen in males (22 percent in 1991 to 16.3 percent in 2004).
There has been an increase in the age standardised incidence rates for most cancers in the ACT. This trend is expected to continue due to the effect of the ageing population in the ACT. The increased prevalence of obesity, low dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and insufficient physical activity at population level will also have impacts on the occurrence of new cases of cancers in the future.
Other publications available
In this section:
- Aborigines and Torres Strait Islander People in the ACT 1998
- Asthma Epidimology ACT 1996
- Breast Cancer in the ACT 2003
- Cancer in the ACT 1994-1998
- Cancer in the ACT Incidence and Mortality 2009
- Cancer in the ACT Survival estimates 1995-2004
- Causes of Death ACT 1998
- Colorectal Cancer in the ACT 2004-2008
- Diabetes Mellitus Epidimiology ACT 1996
- Disability Ageing and Carers ACT 1998
- Drug related health in the ACT 1999
- Epidemiology publications - Monograph Series
- Health risk factors ACT 1998
- Health Snapshots by Subdivisions ACT 2000
- Health status of ACT residents 1995
- Health Status of Males in the ACT 1998
- Health Status of the ACT by subdivisions 1998
- Health status of young people ACT 1998
- Injury Epidemiology ACT 1996
- Mental Health & Wellbeing of Adults National Survey 1997
- National Health Survey SF-36 1995
- Preventing injury in older people ACT 2003
- Secondary School Survey ACT 1996
- Secondary Students Drug and Health Risk Survey ACT 2005
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in the ACT 2006 - 2011
- Vaccine preventable diseases ACT 1993-1997
- Year 6 Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey ACT 2009
- Alcohol and Tobacco Use by Secondary School Students in the ACT 1996-2002
- Asthma in the ACT 1998
- Cancer in the ACT 1983-1992
- Cancer in the ACT 1996-2000
- Cancer in the ACT Incidence and Mortality 2011
- Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology ACT 1997
- Child Deaths Review ACT 1992-2003
- Communicable Diseases in the ACT - 1993-1997
- Diabetes Mellitus in the ACT 1999
- Disability and Ageing in the ACT 1997
- Epidemiology Publications
- Health Related Quality of Life ACT 1994-1997
- Health Snapshots by Sub Division 2009
- Health status in the ACT 1998
- Health Status of Females ACT 1998
- Health Status of Older People in the ACT 1999
- Health Status of Women in the ACT 2008
- Illict drug samples seized ACT 1980-1987
- Inmate Health Survey 2010 Summary results
- Mental Health in the ACT 1997
- Physical activity patterns, ACT adults 2000
- Quality of Life in the ACT 1994-95
- Secondary Student Alcohol and Drug Survey Results ACT 2002
- Sustainable Healthy Development Forum ACT 2006
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health ACT 2000-2004
- Year 6 Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey ACT 2006